How to Pronunciation (Word Endings – The Suffix) EP.2

In this lesson, we will focus on pronunciation in the English language. Good English pronunciation is very important for good communication.
Pronunciation is the way in which a word or letter is said, or said correctly, or the way in which a language is spoken. If you do not have clear English pronunciation, other people may not understand what you are saying.

In English, there are two parts of speech, which can end in the suffix –ed: past participle of regular verbs and some adjectives.

The rules for pronouncing the suffix –ed of past participle regular verbs and the natural –ed endings on some adjectives are as follows:

  1. It is pronounced /Id/ after verbs that end with /t/ or /d/.
  2. It is pronounced /t/ after /p/, /k/, /s/, /x/, /ce/, /ch/, /sh/, and voiceless consonants such as /gh/ and /th/.
  3. It is pronounced /d/ after all other sounds.

When the past participle of regular verbs are used in the past simple and perfect tenses, the speaker or writer must add the suffix –ed to the end of the regular verb.

The /t/ sound is considered to be voiceless, which means that you do not need to use your vocal cords in order to make the sound. The /d/ sound, however, is voiced, which means that you need to use your vocal cords in order to make the sound. The /Id/ is also voiced, and it is the final syllable sound on the end of the word.

  Verbs past participle /t/ /d/ /Id/
1. walk -ed walked    
2. continue -ed   continued  
3. decide -ed     decided
4. like -ed liked    
5. live -ed   lived  
6. start -ed     started
7. finish -ed finished    
8. stay -ed   stayed  
9. visit -ed     visited

Most adjectives, which naturally end in –ed, are considered to be state-of-being adjectives that describe how people or living things feel inside. The same pronunciation rules above apply to these kinds of adjectives.

  Adjectives   /t/ /d/ /Id/
1. sacked ———— sacked    
2. bored ————   bored  
3. excited ————     excited
4. astonished ———— astonished    
5. tired ————   tired  
6. interested ————     interested
7. amused ———— amused    
8. concerned ————   concerned  
9. disappointed ————     disappointed