How to Cohesion in English (Result Clauses) EP.1

In this lesson, you will learn about the different ways to establish cohesion in English. Cohesion is the term used to describe the grammatical way by which words, sentences, and paragraphs are linked together and relationships established.
A result is a consequence, effect, or outcome from an action or situation. You use a result clause when you want to talk about the result of an action or situation in the independent (main) clause.
The following linkers can be used to express a result clause:

so … that, such … that, therefore, as a result, for this reason, thus, hence, consequently

1.  Results: so … (that), such … (that)

The company’s profit increased last quarter, so it was able to give the staff a bonus. (so + a result clause)
(‘so’ introduces an independent clause (IC) stating a result; it sounds informal. (so before a RESULT)
The (IC) states the result of the action taken in the first independent clause (IC).

The company’s profit was so [high] last quarter (that) it was able to give the staff a bonus.
The company’s profit increased so [quickly] last quarter (that) it was able to give the staff a bonus.
(so + [adjective/adverb] + that introduces a (DC) stating a result; it sounds more formal than ‘so’. )

The company made so [much profit] last quarter (that) it was able to give the staff a bonus.
(so + [much/many/little/few + a noun] + that can introduce a (DC) stating a reason, too.)
The (DC) states the result of the action taken in the independent clause (IC).

The company made such [a high profit] last quarter (that) it was able to give the staff a bonus.
(such + [adjective + a noun] + that can introduce a (DC) stating a result; it sounds more formal than ‘so’ )
The (DC) states the result of the action taken in the independent clause (IC).

Notes:

  1. In an informal style, ‘that’ can be dropped when using ‘so’ with an [adjective] or [adverb]; this is very
    common in American English.

2.  Results:  therefore, as a result, for this reason

The economic situation was poor. We therefore postponed our plans for expansion.
The economic situation was poor; therefore, we postponed our plans for expansion.
The economic situation was poor, and therefore we postponed our plans for expansion. (compound sentence)
(therefore introduces an (IC) stating a result, and it expresses ‘for this reason’; it sounds rather formal.)

The economic situation was poor. As a result, we postponed our plans for expansion.
The economic situation was poor, and as a result we postponed our plans for expansion. (compound sentence)
(As a result introduces an (IC) stating a result, and it suggests that one event is the result of a previous
action; it also sounds rather formal.)

The economic situation was poor. For this reason, we postponed our plans for expansion.
(For this reason introduces an (IC) stating a result, and it also sounds rather formal.)

Notes:

  1. Therefore (without a comma) is used to state a result. It usually does not begin the sentence. We usually put it:
    a) between the subject of the sentence an a ‘simple verb’.
    b) after the verb to be (is, am, are, was, were) not after (be, been)
    c) after auxiliary verbs (can, could, will, would, shall, should, may, might, must)
    d) in a compound sentence with “and” , but it is not a conjunction and cannot replace it.
    Not: The network crashed this morning therefore we had to work some overtime.

3.  Results: thus, therefore and thus

My presentation will be in two parts. Thus, I shall begin with the historical background and then deal with
the current problems.
(Thus = ‘the details are as follows’. The second sentence gives details to EXPLAIN the first sentence.)

Modern societies need educated workers. Thus, we must increase spending on education. (Thus + a clause)
(Thus = ‘so’, ‘for this reason’. The first sentence EXPLAINS the second sentence; it sounds rather formal.

Compare:

Modern societies need educated workers. We must therefore increase spending on education.
(therefore introduces an (IC) stating a result, and it expresses ‘for this reason’; it sounds rather formal.)

We shall spend more money on education and thus give our young people hope for the future.
(Thus = ‘by doing this’ and ‘by this method’)

Notes:
1.Thus (with a comma after it) begins the sentence and is used when one sentence EXPLAINS another.

  1. ‘and thus’ (without a comma) expresses ‘by doing this’ and ‘by this method’.

4.  Results:  hence, consequently

One side of the rectangle is 4 cm and the other is 3 cm. Hence, the total area is 12 cm.
(Hence = ‘it follows logically that’; it introduces an (IC) stating a result; it sounds very formal.)

The town was built on the River Cam: hence the name Cambridge.
(Hence = ‘that is the reason for’; there is no verb in the phrase after hence.)

The bank refused to help the company. Consequently, it went bankrupt.
(Consequently introduces an (IC) stating a result; it states something following as a direct result of an earlier
action and to describe the aftermath of something. It sounds rather formal.

Notes:

  1. ‘Hence’ is like ‘thus’ but even more formal; it is used mainly for conclusions that a person could arrive at using
    LOGIC OF REASONING.
  2. When ‘hence’ means ‘that is the reason for’, it has no verb after it. It usually comes after a colon (:),
    semi-colon (;), comma (,), or dash(-).
  3. Consequently is also formal. It is used mainly to describe DIRECT RESULTS and tends to be used when
    describing actions/events at a particular time, place, etc… .
December 25, 2020

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