How to Cohesion in English (Condition Clauses) EP.2

In this lesson, you will learn about the different ways to establish cohesion in English. Cohesion is the term used to describe the grammatical way by which words, sentences, and paragraphs are linked together and relationships established.
A condition is something that is essential to the occurrence of something else. You use a condition clause to state a requirement that needs to be met before you get a certain result. A condition clause comes before or after the independent (main) clause.

The following linkers can be used to express a condition clause:

if , if …not, even if, only if, in case (that), as long as,  so long as, in the event (that), once,on condition that, provided/providing (that), should, unless, until, whether … or(not)

1.  Condition:  if, , unless, if … not

There are four main types of conditional clauses with ‘if’

Condition – 0 The network server goes down if there is a power outage. [General rule or law of nature: it always happen.]
Condition – 1 If she take too many breaks, she will fall behind. [Possible future condition: it may or may not happen.]
Condition – 2 If he really wanted to leave early, he would go now. [Unlikely future condition: it probably won’t happen.]
Condition – 2 If I were you, I would go to see someone in security. [Impossible future condition: it could never happen.]
Condition – 3 I would have resigned if they hadn’t given me the promotion. [Impossible past condition: it didn’t happen.]

(‘if ’ introduces a condition clause [DC] which states the condition that is necessary for the result in the [IC].
It sounds informal.)

Unless you join the club, you won’t receive any of the benefits.
(‘unless’ introduces a condition clause [DC] which states the idea ‘if not.’ It expresses that if the condition [DC]
is not met or is not true, then the result will probably be true in the [IC]. It sounds more formal than ‘if.’)

Compare:

If you don’t join the club, you won’t receive any of the benefits.

2.  Condition:  in case (that), in the event (that), should, whether … or (not)

Always back up your documents frequently in case (that) the hard drive should crash. (‘in case that’ + IC)
(‘in case that’ introduces a condition clause (IC) which states that something probably won’t happen, but it
might. It express that an action should be done now in anticipation of a possible future need. It sounds informal)

In the event (that) the hard drive crashes, you should back up your documents. (‘in the event that’ + IC)
(‘in the event that’ introduces a condition clause [DC] which states something that you don’t expect to happen,
but if it does, an action should be done now in anticipation of a possible future need. It sounds formal.)

Should you have any concerns, our trained technicians will be willing to assist you. (‘should’ + IC)
(‘should’ introduces a condition clause [DC] which states ‘in case that’ and ‘in the event that’. It sounds formal.)

Whether or not all employees are there, the meeting will begin at 4:30. (‘whether … or not’ + IC)
We will continue the construction of the condominium whether the weather is hot or cold. (‘whether … or’ + IC)
(‘whether … or not’ introduces two conditions in the [DC]. Its suggest that neither condition matters because
the results will be the same. It sounds neutral. Inversion: Whether all employees are there or not, the meeting will ….)

Notes:

  1. ‘in case that’ and ‘in the event that’ means ‘by any chance this should happen. Both are used for future events.
  2. ‘in case that’ – the use of ‘should’ in the [IC] emphasizes the writer’s uncertainty that something will happen.

3.  Condition:  once, until, even if, only if

Once the managers arrive, we can start the meeting. (‘once’ + IC)
(‘once’ introduces a condition clause [DC] which states when the condition is met or done, something
else will happen in the [IC]. It sounds more formal than ‘if’.)

Until the managers arrive, we won’t be able to start the meeting. (‘until’ + IC)
(‘until’ introduces a condition clause [DC] which states that the condition must be met or done before
the result can be seen or happen in the [IC]. It sounds more formal than ‘if… not’.)

Even if all of the employees come on time, we can’t start the meeting without the managers. (‘even if’ + IC)
(‘even if’ introduces a condition clause [DC] which states that the condition doesn’t matter.
The result in the [IC] will be the same. It means the same as ‘whether or not.’ It sounds neutral.)

(a) We will be able to start the meeting at 9:00 only if the managers arrive on time. (‘only if’ + IC)
(b) Only if the managers arrive on time will we be able to start the meeting at 9:00.
(‘only if’ introduces a condition clause [DC] which states that there is only one condition that will
cause a particular result in the [IC]. It EMPHASIZES the condition for the result. It sounds neutral.)

Notes:

  1. ‘only if’ – when it begins the sentence, the subject and verb in the [IC] are inverted such as in example (b).

4.  Condition:  as long as, so long as, provided/providing (that), on condition that

The software update is easy to install as long as you follow the instructions. (‘as long as’ + IC)
(‘as long as’ introduces a condition clause [DC] which states that there is only one thing that
happens or is true if another thing happens or is true. It means the same as ‘only if’. It sounds informal.)

The software update is easy to install so long as you follow the instructions. (‘so long as’ + IC)
(‘so long as’ means the same as ‘as long as’. It sounds more formal than ‘as long as’.)

I will accept the new position provided (that) you increase the salary by 10,000 baht. (‘provided that’+ IC)
Providing (that) you increase the salary by 10,000 baht, I will accept the new position. (‘providing that’ + IC)
(‘provided/providing that’ introduces a condition clause [DC] which suggests that something
is standing in the way of something that you want to happen. It sounds formal.)

I will accept the new position on condition that you increase the salary by 10,000 baht. (‘on condition that’ + IC)
(‘on condition that’ introduces a condition clause [DC] which suggests that something
is standing in the way of something that you want to happen. It sounds rather formal.)

Notes:

  1. ‘provided that’ and ‘on the condition that’ are only used for conditions that someone sets before agreeing
    to do something. Not: Provided the earth gets warmer, sea levels will rise.
    Correct: If the earth gets warmer, sea levels will rise.

4.  Condition:  as long as, so long as, provided/providing (that), on condition that

The software update is easy to install as long as you follow the instructions. (‘as long as’ + IC)
(‘as long as’ introduces a condition clause [DC] which states that there is only one thing that
happens or is true if another thing happens or is true. It means the same as ‘only if’. It sounds informal.)

The software update is easy to install so long as you follow the instructions. (‘so long as’ + IC)
(‘so long as’ means the same as ‘as long as’. It sounds more formal than ‘as long as’.)

I will accept the new position provided (that) you increase the salary by 10,000 baht. (‘provided that’+ IC)
Providing (that) you increase the salary by 10,000 baht, I will accept the new position. (‘providing that’ + IC)
(‘provided/providing that’ introduces a condition clause [DC] which suggests that something
is standing in the way of something that you want to happen. It sounds formal.)

I will accept the new position on condition that you increase the salary by 10,000 baht. (‘on condition that’ + IC)
(‘on condition that’ introduces a condition clause [DC] which suggests that something
is standing in the way of something that you want to happen. It sounds rather formal.)

Notes:

  1. ‘provided that’ and ‘on the condition that’ are only used for conditions that someone sets before agreeing
    to do something. Not: Provided the earth gets warmer, sea levels will rise.
    Correct: If the earth gets warmer, sea levels will rise.
December 30, 2020

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